• Common symptoms:

  • Stiffness

  • Limping

  • Inability to rise

  • Reluctance to Jump

  • Reluctance to climb stairs

  • Importance of Nutritional factor:

  • Plays a very important role in your dog’s diet. Not only does calcium help build strong bones, it also helps heart function by supporting the contractions in the heart muscle, supports nerve transmission, muscle building and signaling, and helps with hormone secretion

  • Calcium levels have the ability to remain stable in the body because it is stored in the bones and teeth

  • Shortage of calcium can affect bone and tooth health

  • Bone and Joint health definition:

  • The Musculoskeletal system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. When these are strong and working in harmony, dogs may move free and easy, without pain. When not, many dogs suffer from pain or mobility issues due to a variety of injuries, developmental abnormalities, and nutritional or other heath imbalances.

  • Vitamin D3 helps with uptake of calcium in the body

  • Raw made diet with bones

  • Consists of at least 50% easily consumable raw meaty bones which are an excellent source of calcium and provide the levels of calcium needed in the diet

  • Natural Calcium Resources

  • Add yogurt

  • Add Cheese

  • Give treats that contain meat

  • Choose fish that also has calcium nutrients

  • Ex: Salmon, Tuna, Sardines, Mackerel or Trout

  • Beef or calf liver

  • Egg Yolks

  • Add Vegetables

  • Ex: Spinach, Beans, Sweet Potato, whole wheat or broccoli

  • Coral Reefs contain a lot of calcium

Calcium Diets & Bone/Joint Disease

Special  Diets & Various Conditions

  • Any dog can be affected – However, small breeds are more prone to this disease

  • Anal glands and its Function:

  • When viewing your dog from behind – anal glands are located on each side of and just below the anal opening

  • At the 4 o’clock and 8 o’clock positions

  • A tiny duct leads from the gland under the skin to an opening directly beside the anus

  • Dogs use it primarily for territorial marking or as a form of communication

  • Every time a stool is passed, it should put enough pressure on the anal glands that some of the secretion is deposited on the surface of the stool (contents are usually emptied during normal bowel movements, or when a dog is nervous or scared)

  • Other dogs and cats are then able to tell who has been in their territory, just by sniffing the stools they find

  • Dogs recognize each other by smelling in the general area of the anus because each dog’s anal glands produce a unique scent

  • Disease of the Anal Gland:

  • Some dogs, especially small breed dogs, are not able to empty the sacs properly and become susceptible to anal sac disease

  • Can occur because of the conformation of the dog – the thickness of the gland’s secretions, or the softness of the stool – glands and their ducts often become clogged

  • Anal glands may also become infected and abscess

  • Bacteria makes their way into the gland, through the ducts causing the glands to become infected and abscess

  • Glands can also become clogged or impacted depending on the thickness of the gland’s secretions or the softness of the stool

  • Impacted glands do not affect your dogs overall health

  • However, the problem is that your dog will injure its anal gland area when scooting across the ground or licking/biting its rear end

  • Your dog is also probable to discharging the secretion on your carpet or floor, leaving an odor

  • Symptoms:

  • Scooting (across the room on his bottom)

  • Dog will sit down on its rear and drag its anal area cross the floor or ground

  • Licking or biting his rear end

  • Bad odor

  • Constipation or pain when pooping/sitting

  • Treatment and Prevention:When the gland becomes impacted, a vet, groomer, or yourself must clean them out – cleaning them out empties the glands of all material

  • Apply pressure with the finger – start below the gland and push upwards

  • Abscesses must be lanced by a vet, followed by a 1-2 week period of antibiotics

  • Warm compresses on the area will help relieve pain and reduce swelling

  • Abscesses often have secondary problems causing scar tissue or damage to the nerves and muscles in the area

  • This can cause ‘fecal incontinence’, meaning your dog cannot retain its stools

  • For dogs with chronic problems (reoccurring), removal of the gland through surgery is recommended – also known as ‘anal sacculectomy’

  • Removal of the gland with eliminate any problems associated with these glands permanently

  • Solution with Nutrition: Raw & Bone diet to harden stool pushing against the anal glands during elimination, causing regular emptying of the gland contents

  • Supplementing with fish oil or other oils in Omega 3 will help reduce itching and inflammation

  • Grain – Free Dog Food can be an alternative solution

  • Top 3 choices for High – Fiber Dog Food:

  • Wellness Dog Food

  • Blue Wilderness Grain Free

  • Taste of the Wild

  • Best for Diabetic Dogs

  • Orijen dog food

  • Best for Small Breeds

  • Nutro’s Natural choice

  • Natural Solutions From Home

  •  

  • Shreeded Coconut and Coconut Oil – add small amount to food

  • Add fiber – kidney beans, sweet potatoes

  • Add Pumpkin (VERY AFFECTIVE)

  • Add Apple

  • Add Bran

  • Add Vegetables – carrots, green beans, peas only

  • No canned vegetables or any high sodium food

  • Add low sodium chicken broth for taste

  • Use warm compress – apply to area for five minutes during the day

  • Anal Gland areas are found at the 4 o’clock at 8 o’clock position

  •  

Anal Gland (Anal Sac) Disease & High Fiber Diets
  • What is Food Intolerance?

  • A digestive problem rather than an immune response. Intolerance occurs when a dog’s digestive system is unable to digest a specific ingredient

  • Signs of Intolerance: Digestive Distress such as: gas, bloating, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

  • Why it Occurs (Food Allergy)

  • Begins with a dogs genetic predisposition to develop allergies – once it’s triggered, it’s by exposure to the food they’re allergic to

  • Usually when a dog’s immune system mistakenly identifies a particular food ingredient as harmful – then creates defensive antibodies to fight the invading enemy (the food)

Symptoms:

  • Itchy Skin

  • Chronic or recurrent ear infections,

  • Hair loss

  • Excessive scratching

  • Licking their paws

  • Hot spots

  •  Skin infections

  •  Frequent bowl movements/Diarrhea

  • How to Prevent Food Allergies:

  • Promote a healthy mucosal barrier, watch out for gastroenteritis, promote effective protein digestion, choose a dog food or diet option with exclusive protein sources

  • Most common causes of dog food allergies

  • Beef, Dairy, Chicken, Lamb, Fish, Corn, Wheat, Soy, Yeast, Wheat, Rabbit, Pork, Fish
  • Basic Dietary Designs (Solution)

  • Limited Ingredient Diets

  • Novel Ingredient Diets

  • Contain components the dog might not have been previously exposed to – therefore, less  likely to be sensitive to

  • Ex) Buffalo, Pheasant, Kangaroo or Millet

  • Prescription or Veterinary Diets

  • Elimination Diets (Food Trails) – Recommended

  • Trail consists of feeding dog a novel food source of protein and carbohydrate for at least 12 weeks - no treats, no flavored medication, no rawhide or pig’s ears

  • Ex) Venison and Potato, Rabbit and Lam, Duck and Rutabagas

  • Also known as: hydrolyzed protein diets or limited antigen diets

Food Allergy & Intolerance Diets
  • When healthy, the two kidneys efficiently:

  • Filter the blood

  • Process protein wastes and excrete them into the urine

  • Conserve and balance body water, salts and acids

  • Help to maintain normal red blood cells

  • Kidney disease occurs when one or more of the kidney functions are compromised or reduced

  • Medically referred to as “Renal Disease”

  • Symptoms:

  • Increased water consumption

  • Increased urination volume

  • Decrease in urine

  • Decrease in water consumption

  • Loss of appetite

  • Dehydration

  • Disinterest in normal activities

  • Weakness

  • Pot-bellied appearance of the abdomen

  • Blood in urine

  • Vomiting

  • Seizures

  • Weight loss

  • Lethargy

  • Diarrhea

  • Hunched over posture or reluctance to move

  • Poor hair coat

  • As kidneys deteriorate, the urine becomes less concentrated and lighter in color. Dogs with end-stage kidney failure develop high blood pressure, stop eating, make few attempts to urinate and produce little to no urine, leading them to ultimately collapse, go into a coma, and die

  • Prevention:

  • One of the most troubling aspects of Kidney Disease, is that clinical signs are not shown until after the kidneys have been severely damaged

  • Best prevention is to have your dog get annual blood tests to identify problems with kidney or other organ function

  • Testing becomes more important as your dog advances in age

  • You can help manage the risk of this disease by making sure you food your dog a high-quality, nutritionally balanced diet, and making sure your dog is always accessible to fresh water

  • Poisons and toxins, such as household cleaners, medication, plants and antifreeze should be out of your dogs reach

  • Pay particular attention if your dog is drinking more water and urinating more frequently than normal, or in greater volume – can be a sign

  • Common Causes: Kidney disease or damage can be caused by different factors, including infection, chemical toxins, trauma, advanced age and even congenital kidney conditions. An annual blood screening test can help identify problems as early as possible so that you and your vet can do the best to manage progression of the disease

  • Age

  • Viral, fungal or bacterial infections

  • Parasites

  • Cancer

  • Amyloidosis (caused by abnormal deposits of protein in the kidney)

  • Inflammation

  • Autoimmune diseases

  • Trauma

  • Toxic reactions to poisons or medications

  • Congenital and inherited disorders

  • Diets must have proper amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium – formulated with reduced phosphorous

  • Things to keep in mind:

  • Low phosphorus – feed your dog as little phosphorus as possible

  • High fat-

  • Protein – depends on the type and stage of your dog’s kidney disease

  • Determined my dog’s urine

  • If too much protein, limit the amount

  • Key is to provide a smaller amount of the highest quality, lowest phosphorous protein possible

  • High Carbohydrates

  • Kidney diets get about 50% of their calories from carbs

  • Concept is to increase the ratio of total calories to phosphorus to keep calories high and phosphorus low, diets use simple carbs from hot cereals, white potatoes, white rice, white bread and semolina pasta

  • To keep calories high and phosphorus low, diets use simple carbs from hot cereals, white potatoes, white rice, white bread and semolina pasta

  • To add nutritional value, the carb quotient includes boiled or steamed, pureed, low phosphorus vegetables and fruits

  • Sweet potatoes, collard greens, squash, apples, and papaya

  • Dog must always have access to water

  • Tap water is considered to be high in minerals and is best avoided – switch to bottled water

  • Dogs with kidney disease also have hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • Reduce the amount of sodium

  • Supplements

  • Fish oil – contain omega 3 fatty acids – found to slow progression of disease

  • Stay away from vegetable oils!

  • Vitamin E works as an antioxidant

  • B-Complex – is water soluble meaning they are easily flushed from the dogs body – it will ensure your dog has enough vitamins to support every cell and body tissue

  • Taurine

  • Dogs at Increased Risk:

  • Kidney disease becomes more common with advanced age

  • Dogs that have already suffered previous episodes of acute renal disease have a higher chance of developing chronic kidney disorders

  • Breeds that are reported to have a hereditary or familial predisposition to developing this disease:

  • Alaskan Malamute

  • Basenji

  • Beagle

  • Bedlington Terrier

  • Bernese Mountain Dog

  • Bull Terrier

  • Cairn Terrier

  • Chow Chow

  • Cocker Spaniel

  • Doberman Pinscher

  • Golden Retriever

  • Keeshond

  • Labrador Retriever

  • Lhasa Apso

  • Miniature Schnauzer

  • Newfoundland

  • Norwegian Elkhound

  • Pembroke Welshi Corgi

  • Rottweiler

  • Samoyed

  • Shar-Pei

  • Shih Tzu

  • Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier

  • Standard Poodle

Kidney Disease
  • Why is it better to feed your dog homemade food vs. commercial foods?

  • There are no real government regulations when it comes to what dog food manufacturers can say is in commercial natural dog food

  • To ensure your dog does not wind up ingesting a pesticide or other chemicals that can cause terminal illnesses or their life span to be shortened

  • Advantages

  • A longer life span

  • A dog that is less prone to fleas and other bugs

  • A shinier coat

  • Fewer skin problems

  • More energy

  • Easier to maintain a healthy weight

  • Disadvantages

  • Having to take the time to prepare meals

  • Educating yourself on what kinds of foods are safe for your dog to eat

  • Learning about recipes for dog food and finding ones your dog will eat

  • What to keep in mind when making homemade dog food

  • Your dog needs (animal meat, seafood, dairy, or eggs), fat (from meat or oil) and carbohydrates (grains or vegetables)

  • Your dog also needs calcium (from dairy or an ingredient such as egg shells), and essential fatty acids (from plant oils, egg yolks, oatmeal, etc.)

  • Consider if your dog has a health problem, he may need a special diet

  • It is important that the diet you feed your dog is complete and balanced

  • Guidelines:

  • Meat and Other Animal Products – should always make up at least half of the diet

  • Many raw diets are excessively high in fat – leading to obesity

  • Unless your dog gets regular, intense exercise, use lean meats, remove skin from poultry, and cut off separable fat

  • Raw Meaty Bones (optional):

  • If owner chooses to feed Raw Meaty Bones – should make up one third to one half of the total diet

  • Use the lower end of the range if you feed bony parts such as chicken necks and backs, but you can feed more if you’re using primarily meatier parts such as chicken thighs (never feed cooked bones)

  • Boneless Meat: include both poultry and red meat

  • Heart is a good choice, as it is lean and often less expensive than other muscle meats

  • Fish: Provides Vitamin D, which otherwise should be supplemented

  • Canned fish with bones, sardines – packed in water, not oil, jack mackerel, and pink salmon

  • Remove bones from fish you cook yourself, and never feed raw Pacific salmon, trout, or related species

  • You can feed small amounts of fish daily, or larger amounts once or twice a week

  • The total amount should be about one ounce of fish per pound of other meats (including Raw Meaty Bones)

  • Organs: Liver should make up about 5% of this category, or about one ounce of liver per pound of other animal products

  • Beef Liver is especially nutritious, but include chicken or other types of liver at least on occasion as well

  • Feeding small amounts of liver daily or every other day is preferable to feeding larger amounts less often

  • Eggs: Highly nutritious addition to any diet

  • Dogs weighing about 20 pounds can have a whole egg every day, but give less to smaller dogs

  • Dairy: Plain yogurt and kefir are well tolerated by most dogs (try goat’s milk products if you see problems)

  • Cottage and ricotta cheese are also good options

  • Limit other forms of cheese, as most are high in fat

  • Fruits and Veggies: Known to provide fiber that supports digestive health, as well as antioxidants and other beneficial nutrients that contribute to health and longevity

  • Deeply colored vegetables and fruits are the most nutritious

  • Starchy Vegetables: Veggies such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, and winter squashes (including pumpkin), as well as legumes (beans) – provide carbohydrate calories that can be helpful in reducing food costs and keeping weight on skinny and very active dogs

  • Quantities should be limited for overweight dogs

  • Vegetables must be cooked in order to be digestible by dogs

  • Leafy Green and Other Non- Starchy Vegetables: These are low in calories and can be fed in any quantity desired

  • Too much can cause gas, and raw, veggies such as broccoli and cauliflower can suppress thyroid function

  • Cook them if you feed large amounts

  • Raw vegetables must be pureed in a food processor, blender, or juicer in order to be digested properly

  • However, whole raw veggies are not harmful and can be used as treats

  • Fruits: Bananas, apples, berries, melon and papaya are good choices

  • Avoid grapes and raisins, which can cause kidney failure

  • Grains: Controversial, as they may contribute to inflammation caused by allergies, arthritis, or inflammatory bowl disease; as well as seizures

  • Some grains contain gluten that may cause digestive problems for certain dogs

  • However, many dogs do fine with grains

  • Grains can be used to reduce the overall cost of feeding a homemade diet!

  • Grains and starchy veggies should make up no more than half the diet

  • Good choices include: oatmeal, brown rice, quinoa, barley, and pasta

  • White rice can be used to settle an upset stomach, especially if overcooked with extra water – but it’s low in nutrition and should not make up a large part of the diet

  • All grains must be well cooked

  • Nutritional Requirements

  • 40% meat

  • 30% vegetables

  • 30% carbs

  • Small amounts of cultured dairy products, such as yogurt, cottage cheese and buttermilk

Homemade Diets
  • Senior Dogs need a well balanced diet that is generally lower in calories, but still has adequate protein and fat, and is higher in fiber

  • Older dogs are more prone to develop constipation, so senior diets are often higher in fiber at around 3-5%

  • Wheat bran can be added to regular dog food to increase the amount of fiber

  • Senior dogs usually undergo several changes associated with arthritis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary incontinence, diabetes, liver disease, kidney failure and tendencies to be overweight

  • Dogs with Heart Disease – may need lower-calorie senior dog foods to help keep weight down as well as lower-sodium formulations

  • Dogs with Diabetes- (goal is to delay absorption of a food) may need lower-fat, higher-fiber foods

  • Dogs that have trouble with constipation – should be fed a higher-fiver diet to help them stay regular

  • Many senior diets have higher-quality protein sources than standard foods to help maintain body weight and muscle mass without putting too much strain on the kidneys

  • Dogs with Arthritis and Joint Pain: feed dog foods that contain glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate

  • At what age should you switch your adult dog to senior food?

  • Veterinarians generally consider a dog in the last third of his normal life expectancy to be ‘older”

  • Ex) A large breed dog (such as a Great Dane) that normally lives to be 9 years old would be considered a ‘senior” at age 6

  • A Poodle that normally lives to 15 years would be a

  • “senior” at age 10

  • What should an owner do when a senior dog won’t eat?

  • When dogs lose interest in dry food, adding warm water, chicken broth, or a small amount of canned food can make it more appealing

  • Home-cooked meals can be enticing too – combinations of cooked chicken, barley, or cooked lamb and rice

  • Feed smaller amounts of food more often

  • Basics of the Best Senior Dog Food:

  • Adequate and high quality proteins

  • Fewer Calories

  • High quality fiber

  • Optimum vitamins and minerals

  • Glucosamine and chondroitin for joints

  • No artificial colors, preservatives, or flavors

  • 10 Best Foods to Feed Your Senior Dog

  • Yogurt

  • Eggs

  • Liver

  • Fish

  • Broccoli

  • Sweet Potatoes

  • Berries

  • Chicken

  • Beef

  • Oatmeal

Nutritional Needs of Senior Dog Diets
  • Why is it so important to prevent your dog from being overweight?

  • Not only is obesity life threatening, but overweight dogs are most likely to suffer from a disabling medical condition

  • Diabetes

  • Arthritis

  • Heart disease

  • Lung disorders

  • High blood pressure

  • Immune dysfunction

  • Cancerous tumors

  • Solution: Your dog must eat less and exercise more

  • 2 major components in weight loss – decrease calorie intake and increase activity level

  • Effective weight-loss plans often utilize a low-calorie diet that is high in fiber and dense in nutrients

  • Nutrient dense foods have higher levels of vitamins and minerals   

  • What to look for in an ideal weight loss product:

  • Above average protein

  • Higher protein content helps dog feel more satisfied with less beginning

  • Also helps prevent muscle loss

  • Below average fat

  • Below average calories

  • Lower calories allows your dog to eat more and still lose weight

  • Weight loss is often easier to achieve by adding canned food to your dog’s feeding regimen     

  • Canned products usually have higher protein, less carbs and fewer calories compared to a similar sized quantity of kibble

Tips:

  • Upgrade to a super premium food or to a home-made diet (or something in between – supplementing a super premium dry food with whole foods such a fresh vegetables)

  • Cut back on the regular dog food and adding vegetables

  • If you stick with the same food, reduce the amount by about 25%

  • Try not to eliminate all fat from a dog’s diet – just reduce the amount of fat intake

  • Remember, some fats are better than others

  • Ex) Flaxseed oil, fish oil, and other foods that contain omega 3 and 6 fatty acids

  • Good Whole Foods for Dogs:

  • Apples

  • Brewers yeast

  • Broccoli

  • Carrots

  • Cabbage

  • Cucumber

  • Celery

  • Flaxseed oil, fish oil, omega 3 and 6 supplements

  • Green beans

  • Parsley

  • Kale

  • Green or yellow squash, asparagus and spinach

  • Bananas (small quantity)

  • Whole grains including oats, oatmeal, brown rice, millet

  • Cereal grasses, such as barley grass

  • Tofu

  • Olive oil, sesame oil

Weight Loss Diet
  • BARF – an acronym that stands for ‘Bones and Raw Food’

  • Diet is designed to mimic a dog’s natural ancestral menu

  • Concept of raw feeding is based upon a dog’s instinctive carnivorous bias – a built in desire to capture (or find) and eat another animal

Consists of: Muscle meat still on the bone includes processed raw foods, like frozen and dehydrated foods, as well as feeding your dog raw meat straight from the butcher

  • Bones, either whole or ground

  • Organ meats such as livers and kidneys

  • Raw eggs

  • Vegetables like broccoli, spinach, and celery

  • Apples or other fruit

  • Some dairy, such as yogurt

Benefits:

  • Cleaner teeth and fresher smelling breath

  • Increased energy

  • Firmer stools

  • Improved digestion

  • Healthier skin and coat

  • Reduced allergy symptoms

  • Better weight management

Downside:

  • Not convenient – no kibble food

  • Bacterial Contamination

  • Raw Feeding Guidelines:

  • Balance over time – one meal could have more bone content, another more meat or organ. Approximate overall ratio:

  • 80% meat, sinew, ligaments, fat

  • 10% edible bone

  • 5% liver

  • 5% other organ meat

  • Meats are high in phosphorus, bones are high in calcium

  •  All-Natural Diet (among the fastest growing sectors in the pet food market)

  • The term ‘natural’ refers to the processing of the food and not how the ingredients are grown or raised. It is an unregulated guideline instead of a regulated requirement, which is the case with certified organics.

  • Natural foods typically exclude: Artificial colors, flavors, preservatives, and sometimes growth hormones or GMOs

  • However, foods that offer their ‘natural’ ingredients may still use petroleum-based and artificial fertilizers, synthetic growth hormones, and pesticides

The Raw Diet
  • Not thought to be the most beneficial diet – most dogs have little advantage to going vegan, as even dogs suffering from allergies or other special diets, risk missing out on essential proteins, vitamins and minerals that come from meat products

  • However, even though dogs will always choose meat, they are perfectly capable of getting nutrients from plant foods (it is possible)

  • Requires a lot of effort from owner to ensure your dog is eating a healthy and balanced diet

  • Dogs have molars with relatively flat surfaces designed to grind up bones and fibrous plant material

  • Dogs have the ability to create Vitamin A (an essential nutrient) from beta-carotene found in plants

  • Dogs have the ability to obtain essential nutrients from both plants and animal protein – However, meat is generally regarded as a vital source of protein for dogs

  • Adult dogs adapt to well-balanced vegan diets, but dogs are known to do best with a variety of foods that include some animal fats and protein

  • Note: Dogs could benefit from a vegan meal at least once a week to detox

Why do dogs go Vegan?

1) Personal Ethics (Human/Owner)

2) Food allergies

Pros:

  • Less skin allergies

  • Meat protein such as beef, chicken, or lamb is the leading cause of skin allergies

Cons: (can be dangerous)

  • Not recommended for dog breeding

  • Does not fulfill all dietary nutrient needs

  • Improperly-balanced vegan diet can lead to:

  • Inadequate protein intake (varies depending on dog’s age and activity level, estimated to 15-30% protein)

  • Amino Acid imbalance – leading to heart problems and illnesses

  • Vitamin and Mineral deficiency

  • Dogs require B vitamins, Calcium, Phosphorous, and iron – most commonly found in meat) 

  • Lethargic behavior

  • Plant products do not provide all the energy dogs need

  • Muscle spasm and problems

  • Dogs can safely enjoy a large range of vegan foods:

  • Carrots, broccoli, and other veggies

  • Rice

  • Quinoa

  • Lentils

  • Dark, leafy greens like spinach and kale

  • If you are switching your dog to a vegan diet, the most important thing to realize is that dogs have different digestion systems and nutritional needs than human

  • Most Important Nutritional Requirements for Dogs

  • Protein: AAFCO – set the minimum protein requirement per dry weight at 18% (and 22% for puppy food) – experts generally recommend around 25-30% protein for active and growing dogs

 

  • Problem – dogs don’t assimilate vegan protein as well as meat protein

  • When choosing vegan dog food, choose options with higher protein percentages to compensate for the lower assimilation of vegetable proteins

  • About 30% of protein goes towards maintaining skin and coat – first sign of protein deficiency will be a poor coat

  • Amino Acids: are the building blocks of protein – make sure your dog gets all the necessary amino acids

  • There are 23 amino acids which dogs need

  • 10 are “essential” – meaning dog must obtain them through food

  • 13 are “non-essential” – does not mean dog doesn’t need them. It means dogs can manufacture them out of the essential amino acids

  • 10 essential amino acids are:

  • Arginine

  • Histidine

  • Isoleucine

  • Leucine

  • Lysine

  • Methionine

  • Phenylanine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Valine

  • Taurine and L-Carnitine (Amino acids that require special attention)

  • Not considered essential because dogs can synthesize them in their livers

  • However, some may have trouble synthesizing enough to meet their nutritional needs

  • These amino acids are NOT found naturally in any vegan foods

  • Recommended that you supplement your dog with these amino acids, or be sure to choose a vegan dog food brand which contains them

  • Deficiency can lead to serious heart problems

  • Carbohydrates:

  •  Important source of energy and can also provide fiber minerals like, iron and antioxidants (can be obtained from whole grains or fruit)

  • Vitamin D

  • Unlike humans, dogs are unable to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight

  • If making your own vegan dog food, you will need to supplement food with Vitamin D

  • Make sure any commercial food contains Vitamin D

  • Too much Vitamin D is toxic for dogs

  • Vitamin B and B12

  • There is no vegan source of vitamin B12 – other B vitamins can be found in plants, but do not contain the adequate amount to meet nutritional requirements

  • When making your own food – supplement with B12 and B complex

  • Many dogs like nutritional yeast, which is fortified with B12

Vegan Diet
  • You must do so slowly

  • Don’t immediately dump out your dog’s non-vegan food

  • Slowly mix in the vegan food, gradually increasing the percentage until your dog is eating the vegan food

  • Things to Keep in Mind:

  • Vegan dog food and Allergies:

  • It is common for dogs to develop allergies/food intolerance to ingredients like:

  • Corn

  • Soy

  • Wheat

  • Symptoms may not be notable right away

  • Dry, red, and itchy skin

  • Swollen ears

  • Frequently licking paws

  • Vomiting and diarrhea

  • Symptoms of Deficiencies take time to develop

  • Vegan Dogs and Urine pH

  • Protein naturally acidifies urine and a low-protein diet (which can be a problem with vegan dogs because of poor protein assimilation) can result in urine which isn’t acidic enough

  • Resulting in Kidney problems

  • Vegan Dogs need to have their urine pH regularly tested

  • Urine should be between 5.5 and 7

  • If urine is not acidic enough, you can supplement with cranberry (such as Cranimals)

  • Urine testing can be be done at the Vet or at home

  • At home option: Solid Gold Pet pH testing strips

  • Some foods are toxic to dogs

  • If making your own food avoid:

  • Onions

  • Garlic

  • Chocolate

  • Coffee

  • Tea

  • Grapes/Raisins

  • Macadamia Nuts

  • Avocado

  • Raw Dough

  • Hops

  • Xylitol

  • Best Ingredients for Vegan Dog Food:

  • The Vegan Dog Nutrition Association recommends that the base of vegan dog food be comprise of:

  • Soybeans, lentils, rice, oats, and sweet potatoes

  • If allergies arise, pinto beans and sweet potatoes are a good choice

  • Other Superfood ingredients to include:

  • Chia

  • Wheat germ

  • Soy protein isolate

  • Parsley

  • Blackstrap molasses

  • Quinoa

  • Recommended Supplements for Vegan Dogs:

  • Taurine

  • L-Carnitine

  • B Complex, especially B 12: Nutritional yeast is a good option

  • Iron: about 30mg/kg body weight is required

  • Zinc: Soy can inhibit zinc absorption, so it may be necessary to supplement with zinc – wheat germ is a good source of zinc

  • Vitamin D

  • Recommended Minimum Daily Dosage: 227 IU/lb food consumed on a dry matter basis

  • Toxic Dose: 2272 IU/food consumed on a dry matter basis

  • Homemade Recipe Example:

  • 6 cups water

  • 1 cup mixed rice and quinoa (mix black, brown and long grain with black and/or white quinoa)

  • 1 cup mixed lentils

  • 3 medium sweet potatoes sliced into 1-inch cubes

  • 3 cups of natural peanut butter

  • 8-12oz apple cider vinegar

  • 8g hemp protein

  • 1 tbsp. flaxseed oil

  • 200-250mg cranberry extract

  • VegeDog – Multivitamin powder

  • Prozyme Plus (helps digestion so dog can absorb as many nutrients as possible)

  • 125mg PB8 brand probiotic (1/4 pill)

  • Boil the water

  • Add the rice, lentils and sweet potatoes

  • Reduce the heat and simmer, covered for 40 minutes to an hour

  • Stir occasionally and add more water as needed

  • Ingredients should be extra moist – making them easier to digest

  • Mash the sweet potatoes – let cool

  • Add the peanut butter and vinegar – stir well

  • Place 3-5 servings in your freezer to store the rest

  • Measure 2/3 cup of food per meal

  • At meal time: add hemp protein, flaxseed oil, cranberry extract, Vegedog, Prozyme Plus, and PB8 into food

  • Mix well and serve twice daily

When Transition your dog to a Vegan Diet
  • (Among the fastest-growing sectors in the pet food market)

  • The Diet where regulated requirements come into play. The USDA conducts unannounced inspections to ensure manufacturers adhere to the strict and set guidelines, both in the growth phase, as well as the processing and handling phases of food production.

  • Also required to adhere to a practices having to do with environmental pollution and cruelty-free animal care

  • Certified 100% organic foods will never contain GMOs, synthetic herbicides, pesticides, or irradiation.

  • Primary concern of an Organic Diet is the cost. However, it is argued that by spending the money on higher quality food now, you’re helping to save yourself costs in medical expenses down the road.

 

3 Benefits of Organic Dog Food

  • Reduction of skin disease and allergies

  • More energy and normal weight

  • Fewer digestive problems

4 Best producers of Organic Dog Food

  • Acana

  • Equilibrio

  • Bosch

  • Royal Cani

Organic Diet
  • Great solution if your dog is suffering from skin irritation, fur loss, goopy eyes or ears – allergies in general

  • Eliminating grains is one course of action some nutritionists or veterinarians will take to identify and treat allergies

Does grain free mean carb free?

  • Another popular feeding concept that goes hand in hand with feeding your dog grain fee food, is the feeding of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. It is important NOT to assume that grain free diet is a low carb diet. In fact, some grain free foods contain carb levels similar to or even higher than the diets containing grains

 

  • Ingredients such as potatoes replace the grains in the food

  • Wheat, barley, rye, and oats are excluded from diet

  • Wheat is one of the most problematic food

Grain-Free Diet
  • Diet is particularly helpful for dogs that have intolerance to gluten in general,  allergies to wheat, or dogs with epilepsy

  • Gluten can be a problematic ingredient for many dogs, and can cause problem like gastro-intestinal upset, itchy skin, and ear infections

  • Elimination of gluten can reduce or even eliminate the need for prescribed steroids and antibiotic treatments

  • Gluten is the protein that is found in specific types of grain, namely wheat, barley, and rye – meaning diet is free of these proteins. Gluten is a mixture of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin.

  • However, not all grains contain gluten

  • Ex) Rice, corn, oats, millet and quinoa

  • Difference Between Grain- Free Diet and Gluten – Free Diet

  • Gluten free dog food may or may not be grain free, while grain free dog food will always be both grain and gluten free

What damages can gluten have on dogs?

  • The presence of gluten in the diet causes an inflammatory response in the intestine

  • 1) The atrophy (wasting) of the villi (small projections) in the lining of the small intestine responsible for helping dog’s body to absorb nutrients from food

  • 2) An increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are present in the dog’s intestine wall

  • Damage to the intestine makes it harder for nutrients to be absorbed, leading to malnutrition and weight loss

Is Gluten Free Dog Food Essential?

  • Gluten is not necessarily bad for all dogs – making it not essential

  • Grains that contain gluten can be a perfectly good source of carbohydrate, protein, fiber

 

  • However, studies have shown that many dogs can be sensitive to gluten, and a gluten free diet may significantly improve the dogs health

  • Breeds with Known Sensitivities

  • Irish Setters

  • Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers

  • Border Terriers

  • Gluten Free Dog Food has higher quality ingredients

  • Higher levels of protein

  • Home- made Gluten Free Diet

  • Foods to Avoid

  • Processed foods

  • Baked goods

  • Wheat (all forms)

  • Bread

  • Cereals

  • Couscous

  • Triticale

  • Rye

  • Einkorn

  • Barley

  • Pasta

  • Spelt

  • Natural Foods to Include:

  • Meat

  • Fish

  • Seafood

  • Corn

  • Oats (gluten free)

  • Fruits

  • Vegetables

  • Rice

  • Buckwheat

  • Eggs

  • Nuts

  • Amaranth

  • Quinoa

  • Millet

  • Legumes

  • Sorghum

  • Oils and fats

  • Tapioca

  • Arrowroot

Gluten-Free Diet

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